1640
2nd Bishops’ War.
Treaty of Ripon.
Portugal independence.
Coke made from coal.
Rubens dies.

1641
Massacre of Ulster Protestants.
Catholic rebellion in Ireland.
French settle Michigan.
Swedes settle Delaware.
Medicinal arsenic.
Cotton goods.
Van Dyck dies.

1642
England Civil War.
Galileo dies.
Isaac Newton born.
England: Income & property tax.
Montreal founded.

1643
English Civil War.
Louis XIII dies.
Louis XIV age 5.
New England formed.
Barometer.
Coffee in Paris.
Frescobaldi dies.
Monteverdi dies.

1644
England Civil War.
Ming Dynasty ends.
Manchu Dynasty.
William Penn born.
Descartes; Cogito, ergo sum.
Pope Urban VIII dies,
Pope Innocent X succeeds.
Antonio Stradiveri born.

1645
English Civil War.
Czar Michael I dies.
Czar Alexi I.
University of Palermo.
Dalai Lama residence built in Llasa, Tibet.

1646
English Civil War ends.
England occupies Bahamas.

1647
Treaty of Ulm.
Charles I prisoner.
England: Presbyterianism restored.
Francesco Cavalieri born.
Evangelista Torricelli born.
Calvinists acknowledged.

1648
Scots: 2nd civil war, defeated.
Hydrochloric acid.
Quakers.

1649
War of Fronde in France.
Charles I beheaded.
Charles II exile in The Hague.
England a Commonwealth.
Cromwell invades Ireland.
England: English replaces Latin for legal documents.