1650
Charles II in Scotland.
John Churchill born.
1st coffee house England.
World pop. 500 million.
Beginning exterm. Am. Indian.
1st tea in England.
Descartes dies.
Modern harmony, modulation.
Musical form: overture.

1651
Charles II King of Scots, flees to France after Cromwell defeat.
England: Navigation Act.
Dutch take Cape of Good Hope.
Riccioli’s map of moon.

1652
England war with Dutch.
Maine joins Massachusetts Bay Colony.
Air pump.

1653
Ferdinand IV King of Romans.
London Polyglot Bible.
Arcangelo Corelli born.
Johann Pachelbel born.

1654
Treaty of Westminster.
Louis XIV coronation.
Russia war w/ Poland.
Theory of Probability.
1st picture book for children.

1655
Cromwell dissolves Parliament.
England: 11 districts.
English capture Jamaica.
1st newspaper in Berlin.
Cyrano de Bergerac dies.
Jews readmitted into England.
Pope Innocent X dies, Pope Alexander VII succeeds.

1656
Edmund Halley born.
Hôpital général, Paris.
Spinoza excommunicated.
Academy of Painting, Rome.
Piazza of St. Peter’s, Rome.
Rembrandt bankrupt.
Jan van Goyen dies.
1st London Opera house.
Velazquez: Maids of Honor.

1657
1st pendulum for clocks.
Manasseh ben Israel dies.
Chocolate beverages.
Stockings.
Fountain pens.
1st encyclopedia.

1658
Cromwell dies.
Red blood corpuscles.
Balance spring for watches.
1st bank note.

1659
Richard Cromwell reigns.
Henry Purcell born.
Alessandro Scarlatti born.