1800
Napoleon defeats Egyptians, Turks, Austrians, conquers Italy.
British capture Malta.
Washington, D.C., new capital.
Thomas Jefferson wins election.
Morton: Speed the Plough.
Pope Pius VII appointed.
Gall practices phrenology.
Infrared solar rays discovered.
Royal College of Surgeons.
1st battery of zinc & copper.
Clothes dryer invented.
Biggin (coffee pot) invented.
Berlin introduces letter post.
City of Ottawa founded.
Paris population: 550,000; New York: 60,000.

1801
Peace between Austria and France.
Jefferson inaugurated.
French leave Egypt.
Novalis dies.
Haydn composes The Seasons.
Fulton builds 1st submarine.
Bank of France founded.
1st iron trolley tracks, England.
English flag: Union Jack.

1802
Napoleon becomes president of Italy.
Peace: Britain and France.
Toussaint-L’Ouverture leads Negro revolt in Santo Domingo.
Alexandre Dumas père born.
Victor Hugo born.
G. F. Grotefend deciphers Babylonian cuneiform.
Art: Classicist Empire style.
Beethoven composes Symphony No. 2.
Atomic theory in chemistry.
Herschel discovers binary stars.
Treviranus coins “biology.”
West Point Academy founded.

1803
Ohio gains statehood.
Louisiana purchase.
War between France & England.
C. J. Doppler born.
Ralph Waldo Emerson born.
Hector Berlioz born, composer.
Franz Xavier Süssmayer dies—he completed Mozart Requiem.
Berzelius discovers cerium.
Fulton’s steam-powered boat.
Henry Schrapnel invents shell.

1804
Napoleon crowned Emperor.
12th Amendment to Constitution.
Spain declares war on England.
Alexander Hamilton dies in duel.
Benjamin Disraeli born.
Nathaniel Hawthorne born.
George Sand born.
Immanuel Kant dies.
English Watercolour Society.
Beethoven composes Symphony No. 3.
Johann Strauss born.

1805
Jefferson begins 2nd term.
Naploeon crowned King of Italy in Milan Cathedral.
Battle of Austerlitz.
Modern Egypt established.
Hans Christian Anderson born.
Beethoven composes Fidelio.
Luigi Boccherini born.
Turner paints Shipwreck.
British army uses rockets.
Sartürner isolates morphine.

1806
William Pitt the Younger dies.
Prussia declares war on France.
Napoleon enters Berlin.
French army enters Warsaw.
End of Holy Roman Empire.
Elizabeth Barrett Browning born.
Arc de Triomphe, Paris.
Beethoven composes Symphony No. 4. & Violin Concerto.
Germany population: 27 million.

1807
French/German Treaty.
Chesapeake Incident.
US Embargo Act (France & England).
France invades Portugal.
Henry W. Longfellow born.
Beethoven: Leonora Overture.
Pleyel founds piano factory.
1st Ascot Gold Cup.
England prohibits slave trade.
Gas street lighting in London.

1808
US prohibits import of slaves.
France invades Spain.
Napoleon abolishes inquisition in Spain and Italy.
Jefferson Davis born.
Honoré Daumier born, artist.
Beethoven composes Symphonies 5 & 6.
Source of Ganges discovered.
Goethe and Napoleon meet.
Pompeii excavations begin.
Ship anchor chains patented.

1809
Treaty of Dardanelles.
War between France and Austria.
William Gladstone born.
James Madison inaugurated.
Napoleon annexes Papal States.
Pope Pius VII taken prisoner.
Napoleon divorces Josephine.
Abraham Lincoln born.
W. Irving writes Rip Van Winkle.
Edgar Allan Poe born.
Alfred, Lord Tennyson born.
Charles Darwin born.
Beethoven composes Emperor Concerto.
Joseph Haydn dies.
Felix Mendelssohn born.
Louis Braille born.