Napoleon marries Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria; and annexes Holland, Hanover, Bremen, Hamburg.
Venezuela breaks from Spain.
England siezes Guadaloupe, West Indies.
Beethoven composes Egmont Overture.
Frédéric Chopin born.
Robert Schumann born.
Canned food techniques devel.
Hahnemann founds homeopathy.
1st public billiards rooms, England
Durham miners’ strike.
Phineas T. Barnum born.
US population: 7,239,881.

Russia seizes Belgrade.
Austria bankrupt.
Napoleon’s son becomes King of Rome.
Paraguay breaks from Spain.
British occupy Java.
Austen writes Sense and Sensibility.
Harriet Beecher Stowe born.
W. M. Thackeray born.
Ingres paints Jupiter and Thetis.
Waterloo Bridge, London.
Franz Liszt born.
Molecular composition of gases.
Bell: Anatomy of the Brain.
Luddites destroy machines, England

Napoleon enters Russia, retreats from Moscow to Paris; 430,000 of his men die.
Louisiana gains statehood.
“Uncle Sam” image is born.
England Prime Minister Perceval assassinated.
US declares war on England.
James Madison wins election.
Robert Browning born.
Brothers Grimm write Fairy Tales.
Charles Dickens born.
Elgin Marbles brought to England
Théodore Rousseau born.
Beethoven composes Symphonies 7 & 8.
Flax-spinning machine invented.

Prussia declares war on France.
Austria declares war on France.
Napoleon defeated at Leipzig.
Holland expels French.
US captures York (Toronto).
English capture US frigate Chesapeake.
US reoccupies Detroit.
English burn Buffalo.
Wellington enters France.
Mexico declares independence.
Austen writes Pride and Prejudice.
Sören Kierkegaard born.
Methodist Missionary Society.
London Philharmonic Society.
Giuseppe Verdi born.
Richard Wagner born.
David Livingstone born.
McGill University, Montreal.

Murat deserts Napoleon.
Alled armies defeat French.
Napoleon abdicates and is banished to Elba.
Pope Pius VII returns to Rome.
US defeats England at Chippewa.
Brits burn Washington, D. C.
India declares war on Nepal.
Jean François Millet born.
Samuel Colt born.
Austen writes Mansfield Park.
Byron writes The Corsair.
Hoffmann writes Hoffmann’s Tales.
Beethoven composes Fidelio.
Goya paints The Third of May, 1808.
Francis Scott Key writes Defense of Fort McHenry (U.S. national anthem).
Maelzel invents metronome.
1st steam locomotive.
Marquis de Sade dies.

Battle of New Orleans.
Napoleon leaves Elba.
Louis XVIII flees.
Napoleon defeated at Waterloo, abdicates second time.
England passes Corn Law.
Otto von Bismarck born.
Brazil declares independence.
Anthony Trollope born.
Art: Biedermeier style.
John Singleton Copley dies.
Miner’s safety lamp invented.
Diffraction of light research.
Cuvier’s work on paleontology.
1st steam warship: USS Fulton.

Argentina gains independence.
Indiana gains statehood.
Java restored to Netherlands.
Jane Austen writes Emma.
Charlotte Brontë born.
American Bible Society founded.
Rossini composes Barber of Seville.
Brewster invents kaleidoscope.
Laënnec invents stethoscope.
Economic crisis causes British emigration to U.S. and Canada.

James Monroe inaugurated.
Mississippi gains statehood.
England: low wage riots.
Braccia Nuova builds Vatican.
Berzelius identifies selenium and lithium.
1st construction on Erie Canal.
Henry David Thoreau born.
Frederick Douglass born.
Jane Austen dies.

England: Habeus Corpus reinstated.
Chile declares independence.
US/Canada border: 49th parallel.
Illinois gains statehood.
Byron writes Don Juan.
Sir Walter Scott writes Rob Roy.
Mary W. Shelley writes Frankenstein.
Géricault paints Raft of the Medusa.
Bonn University founded.
Karl Marx born.
Prado Museum founded, Madrid.
Charles Gounod born.
Huber/Mohr write Stille Nacht.
1st professional US horse racing.
Savannah crosses Atlantic.

British settlement in Singapore.
US buys Florida from Spain.
Future Queen Victoria born.
“Peterloo” Massacre, England.
Alabama gains statehood.
Simón Bolivar elected president of Colombia.
Keats writes Hyperion.
Walt Whitman born, poet.
Gustave Courbet born, painter.
Herman Melville born, author.
Beethoven goes deaf.
Jacques Offenbach born, comp.
Clara Schumann born, pianist.
Flat-bed cylinder printing press.
Oersted develops electromagnetism.
James Watt dies.
Freedom of the press in France.
England declares maximum 12-hour working day for juveniles.