1840
Queen Victoria marries Prince Albert.
Lower & Upper Canada unified.
End of Afghan War.
London Library opens.
Houses of Parliament begun.
Penny postage in Britain.
Popular US game: ninepins.
Nelson’s Column erected in Trafalgar Square.
Father Damien born, leper Dr.
Thomas Hardy born, author.
Émile Zola born, author.
Claude Monet born, artist.
Auguste Rodin born, sculptor.
Pierre A. Renoir born, artist.
Peter Tchaikovsky born, comp.
Nicolò Paganini dies, violinist.
Beau Brummell dies.

1841
Britian wins Hong Kong.
9th president William Harrison inaugurated, dies after 1 month.
John Tyler 10th president.
Georges Clemenceau born.
Future King Edward II born.
Slaves capture U.S.S. Creole.
New Zealand becomes a British colony.
James Braid discovers hypnosis.
J. Petzval invents f/3.6 portrait lens.
J. F. Cooper writes The Deerslayer.
Poe writes Murders in the Rue Morgue.
Punch debuts in London.
Oliver Wendell Holmes born.
Anton Dvorák born, composer.
Adolphe Sax invents saxophone.
Barnum puts Freaks & Curiosities in his circus.
1st university degrees granted to women in America.

1842
England & U.S. define Canadian frontier.
End of Opium War.
Sir James Dewar born, chemist.
Ambrose Bierce born, author.
C. J. Doppler: Doppler Effect.
Ether used for anesthesia.
1st studies in oceanography.
Poe writes Masque of the Red Death.
Jules Massenet born, composer.
Arthur Sullivan born, composer.
The polka comes into fashion.

1843
William McKinley born.
New Queen of Spain: Isabella II.
Maori revolts in New Zealand.
John Frémont crosses Rockies.
Dickens writes A Christmas Carol.
Edward Grieg born, composer.
Hans Richter born, conductor.
Henry James born, author.
Noah Webster dies.
Christmas cards invented.
Wagner composes The Flying Dutchman.
Morse gets grant for telegraph.

1844
U. S. treaty with China.
Treaty of Tangier between France & Morroco.
Marx meets Engels in Paris.
Telegraph between Baltimore & Washington, D.C.
Henri Rousseau born, artist.
Sarah Bernhardt born, actress.
Elizabeth B. Browning writes Poems.
Thackeray writes Barry Lyndon.
Mendelssohn composes Violin Concerto.
Anatole France born, author.
Thomas Eakins born, painter.
Ilya Repin born, painter.
Henri Rousseau born, painter.
Rimsky-Korsakov born, comp.
Friedrich Nietzsche born.
George Williams founds YMCA.
Keller invents wood-pulp paper.

1845
Famine in Ireland, emigration.
James Polk 11th US president.
Florida & Texas become states.
U.S. Naval Academy opens.
Scientific American founded.
Edgar Allen Poe: The Raven.
Andrew Jackson dies.
Hydraulic crane patented.
Kolbe synthesizes acetic acid.
Gabriel Fauré born, composer.

1846
England repeals Corn Laws.
Potato famine in Ireland.
Pope Gregory XVI dies;
Pope Pius IX succeeds.
U.S. war with Mexico.
U.S. annexes New Mexico.
Iowa gains statehood.
Smithsonian Institution founded.
Carl Zeiss opens optical factory.
Howe patents sewing machine.
Mohl identifies protoplasm.
Morton uses ether in dentistry.
Sobrero invents nitroglycerine.
Lear writes Book of Nonsense.
Brigham Young goes to Utah.
“Buffalo Bill” Cody born.

1847
U.S. captures Mexico City.
British Factory Act: 10-hour day.
Alexander Graham Bell born.
Thomas Edison born.
Mormons found Salt Lake City.
First Law of Thermodynamics.
Chocolate chip cookie invented.
Evaporated milk invented.
Charlotte Brönte writes Jane Eyre.
E. Brönte writes Wuthering Heights.
Felix Mendelssohn dies.

1848
U.S. ends war with Mexico.
Revolutions in Paris, Vienna, Berlin, Venice, Milan, Parma, Rome, Prague.
Switzerland becomes a federal union.
Wisconsin gains statehood.
Wagner composes Lohengrin.
Paul Gauguin born, artist.
Hancock performs 1st appendectomy.
Marx & Engels write Communist Manifesto.
Paul Gauguin born, artist.
NY News Agency founded, becomes AP in 1856.
Gold discovered in California.

1849
Rome becomes a republic.
Disraeli leads Conserv. Party.
England annexes Punjab.
Fizeau measures speed of light.
Zachary Taylor inaugurated.
Livingston crosses Kalahari.
Dickens writes David Copperfield.
Dostoevsky sent to Siberia.
1st edition of Who’s Who.
Edgar Allan Poe dies.
Delacroix paints Louvre ceiling.
Frédéric Chopin dies.
Johann Strauss I dies.
Bloomer: women’s dress reform.