1850
China: Taiping rebellion.
Zachary Taylor dies; Millard Fillmore becomes president.
California gains statehood.
Bunsen invents gas burner.
Neo-Gothic architecture.
Paxton builds Crystal Palace.
Tennyson made Poet Laureate.
G. Bristow writes Rip Van Winkle.
Richard Wagner composes Lohengrin.
Jean François Millet paints The Sower.
Hawthorne writes The Scarlet Letter.
Robert Louis Stevenson born.
William Wordsworth dies.
Honoré de Balzac dies.

1851
Cuba declares independence.
The yacht “America” wins America’s Cup.
2nd Law of Thermodynamics.
Singer invents continuous stitch.
Louis Daguerre dies.
1st double-decker bus.
Cast-iron frame building.
James Fennimore Cooper dies.
Hans Christian Oersted dies.
James Turner dies.
The New York Times debuts.
Diderot: Encyclopedia.
Melville: Moby Dick.
Hawthorne: House of 7 Gables.

1852
Louis Napoleon III becomes Emperor.
Second Burmese war.
Paddington Station built.
Duke of Wellingotn dies.
Louis Braille dies.
Livingston explores Zambezi.
Dr. Mathysen invents cast.
Harriet Beecher Stowe writes Uncle Tom’s Cabin.
U.S. imports German sparrows to combat caterpillars.
Wells Fargo founded.

1853
Crimean War.
Franklin Pierce inaugurated.
A. Wood invents hypodermic.
Charles Frederick invents aspirin.
George Crum invents potato chip.
Samuel Colt invents small firearms.
Steinway & Sons founded.
Vincent Van Gogh born, artist.
C. J. Doppler dies.
Wagner completes Ring text.
Chloroform used on Queen Victoria during birth.
Boulevards & parks rebuilt in Paris.
Redwoods discovered in CA.

1854
Admiral Perry visits Japan.
Elgin Treaty: U.S. & Britain.
U.S. Republican Party formed.
Pope Pius IX: “Immaculate Conception is an article of faith.”
Oscar Wilde born.
Henri Poincaré born.
George Eastman born.
George Ohm dies.
Goebel invents light bulb.
Kingsley: Westward Ho!.
Thoreau: Walden.
Millet paints The Reaper.

1855
Czar Nicholas I dies.
Paris World Exposition.
Printing telegraph invented.
Köller develops tungsten steel.
1st iron Cunard crossing.
G. Audemars patents rayon.
Percival Lowell born, astronomr.
Charlotte Brontë dies.
Sören Kierkegaard dies.
Livingston at Victoria Falls.
Walt Whitman writes Leaves of Grass.
Longfellow writes Song of Hiawatha.

1856
England annexes Oudh, India.
War between England & China.
France/Spain border defined.
Kansas: slavers murdered by free-staters.
Woodrow Wilson born.
J .J. Thomson born, physicist.
Sigmond Freud born.
George Bernard Shaw born.
Robert E. Peary born.
W. Perkin creates 1st aniline dye.
Cocaine extracted from cocoa beans.
Flaubert writes Madame Bovary.
Robert Schumann dies.
Chicago baseball unions formed.
186-round boxing match.
Neanderthal skull discovered.
“Big Ben” casted, 13.5 tons.

1857
Peace of Paris.
European financial crisis.
James Buchanan inaugurated.
India revolts against British.
England destroys China fleet.
National Portrait Gallery, London.
William Taft born.
Robert Baden-Powell born.
Joseph Conrad born, novelist.
Heinrich Hertz born, physicist.
Edward Elgar born, composer.
Mikhail Glinka dies, composer.
Pasteur discovers fermentation.
Otis installs 1st safety elevator.
Construction for 1st transatlantic cable begins; finished in 1866.
Atlantic Monthly founded.
Joseph Gayetty invents toilet paper.

1858
Treaty of Tientsin, England & China.
British proclaim peace in India.
Suez Canal Company formed.
Minnesota gains statehood.
Theodore Roosevelt born.
Beatrice Webb (nèe Potter) born.
Ottawa becomes capitol of Canada.
Giacomo Puccini born, comp.
Rudolph Diesel born, engineer.
“Wedding March” first used.
Theory of Evolution introduced.
Lister studies coagulation.
Virgin Mary appears at Lourdes.
Paulist Fathers founded.
Ando Hiroshige born, painter.
Can opener invented.

1859
French/Austrian War.
Work on Suez Canal begins.
1st oil well in Pennsylvania.
Charles Blondin crosses Niagara Falls on tightrope.
Steamroller invented.
Oregon gains statehood.
1st oil well, Pennsylvania.
Dickens writes A Tale of Two Cities.
Edward Fitzgerald writes Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám.
Darwin writes Origin of Species.
Daniel Decatur Emmett: Dixie.
Georges Seurat born, artist.
Arthur Conan Doyle born.
Washington Irving born.
John Dewey born.
Thomas de Quincey dies.
Horace Mann dies.