1860
Treaty of Turin.
Garibaldi invades Italy.
Treaty of Peking.
Abraham Lincoln elected: South Carolina secedes in protest.
1st internal combustion engine.
Gustav Mahler born, composer.
Cork linoleum invented.
Levi Strauss invents blue jeans.
Anton Chekhov born, author.
Arthur Schopenhauer dies.
Skiing becomes a competitive sport.
1st British Open Golf Championship.

1861
Russia abolishes serfdom.
Warsaw massacre.
Kansas gains statehood.
Abraham Lincoln inaugurated.
American Civil War begins.
Paris Opéra 1861-1874.
F. G. Hopkins born, chemist.
Pasteur: germ theory of ferment.
Rudolf Steiner born.
Elizabeth Barrett Browning dies.
Dickens writes Great Expectations.
George Eliot writes Silas Marner.
Tannhäuser a scandal in Paris.
England: Daily weather forecasts.
U.S. creates passport system.
U.S. population: 32 million.

1862
Bismarck becomes Prussian P. M.
Union captures Fort Henry.
2nd Battle of Bull Run.
Lion Foucault: speed of light.
Gatling builds 10-barrel gun.
Julius Sachs: photosynthesis.
Sarah Bernhardt debut.
Victor Hugo: Les Misérables.
Edith Wharton born, author.
Claude Debussy born, comp.
Henry David Thoreau dies.

1863
West Virginia gains statehood.
Emancipation Proclamation.
Battle of Gettsyburg, “Gettysburg Address.”
Afghanistan Civil War.
French capture Mexico City.
U.S. National Academy of Sciences.
Henry Ford born, auto maker.
Henry Royce born, auto maker.
Evard Munch born, artist.
Lucien Pissarro born, artist.
William Randolf Hearst born.
Manet paints Olympia.
Eugène Delacroix dies, artist.
1st paper dress patterns.
1st open-hearth steel furnace.
University of Massachusetts, Amherst founded.
1st Gran Prix de Paris.
London Underground begun.
Travelers Ins. Co. founded.
Roller skating in America.
1st stolen base in baseball.

1864
Peace of Vienna.
Florence made capital of Italy.
Austria accepts Mexican crown.
Ulysses S. Grant becomes Commander-in-Chief.
Sherman takes Savannah.
Confederates try to burn NYC.
Farragut: “Damn the torpedos!”
Lincoln re-elected.
Sand Creek massacre.
Nevada gains statehood.
Pasteur invents pasteurization.
Nathaniel Hawthorne born.
Richard Strauss born, comp.
Toulouse-Lautrec born, artist.
Stephen Foster dies.
Tolstoy begins War and Peace, finshes in 1869.
1st U. S. salmon cannery.
In God We Trust on U. S. coins.

1865
Mendel formulates Genetic Theory.
Lee surrenders at Appomattox.
Lincoln assassinated; Andrew Johnson succeeds.
Jefferson Davis captured.
End of American Civil War.
13th Amendment to Constitution.
Statue of Liberty.
Warren G. Harding born.
Samuel Cunard born.
William B. Yeats born, author.
Rudyard Kipling born, author.
Jean Sibelius born, comp.
William Butler Yeats born, poet.
Lewis Carroll writes Alice in Wonderland.
Doré creates Bible illustrations.
Samuel Colt dies.
Trans-Atlantic cable completed.
1st non-ivory billiard ball.
Kekulé: benzene ring theory.
Joseph Lister invents antiseptic surgery.
J. Plücker invents line geometry.
Purdue, Cornell, MIT founded.
Pasteur cures silkworm disease.
Beginning of Salvation Army.
1st carpet sweepers.
Ku Klux Klan founded.
1st Pullman sleeping cars.
1st train holdup: No. Bend, Ohio.
Union stockyards: Chicago.
Ed. Whymper climbs Matterhorn.

1866
Prussian/Austrian/Italian War.
Whitehead invents torpedo.
London's “Black Friday.”
Dostoevsky writes Crime&Punishment.
Edouard Manet: The Fifer.
H. G. Wells born, author.
Degas paints ballet scenes.

1867
Russia sells Alaska to U. S.
Noble invents dynamite.
N. Germany confederation founded.
Canada granted dominion status.
Brit. Parliamentary Reform Act.
Livingston explores Congo.
Nebraska gains statehood.
Wyoming gold strike.
Marie Slodowska Curie born.
Arturo Toscanini born, cond.
Pierre Michaux makes bicycles.
J. Monier invents reinforced concrete.
S. African diamond fields found.
Charles Baudelaire dies.
Émile Zola writes Thérèse Raquin.
Ibsen writes Peer Gynt.
Johann Strauss II composes Blue Danube.
Paris World’s Fair.
Théodore Rousseau dies, artist.
Jean-Auguste Ingres dies, artist.
Michael Faraday dies, physicist.

1868
British troops to Ethiopia.
Japan abolishes shogunate.
Johnson impeached/acquitted.
14th Amendment to Constitution.
Benjamin Disraeli briefly British P. M., Gladstone new P. M.
Revolution in Spain.
Maxim Gorky born, author.
Edouard Vuillard born, artist.
Impressionist style begins.
Claude Monet paints The River.
Louisa M. Alcott writes Little Women.
Tchaikovsky composes Symphony No. 1.
Ed McIhenny invents Tabasco Sauce.
Cro-Magnon skeleton found.
Gioacchino Rossini dies.
Armour meat factory: Chicago.
1st baseball uniforms: Cincinnati.
Badminton invented.

1869
Ullysses S. Grant inaugurated.
Suez Canal opens.
1st Am. transcontinental R.R.
Henri Matisse born, artist.
Mahatma Gandhi born.
Frank Lloyd Wright born.
J. W. Hyatt invents celluloid.
Periodic Law of Elements.
Mark Twain writes Innocents Abroad.
Meeting of 1st Vatican Council.
Hector Berlioz dies.
“Cutty Sark” launched.
Austria: 1st postcards.